10 grs Rapé indígena TSUNU - Tribo Yawanawa
O rapé Tsunu é feito com casca de Pau Pereira e Tabaco. Utilizado normalmente para descarrego, limpeza e aterramento. Com a intenção direcionada, também é muito bom para nos conectar com a Mãe Terra. É um rapé forte, indicado para pessoas que já possuem alguma experiência com a medicina.
Se trata de uma medicina muito especial, utilizado durante pajelanças realizadas com Huni (Ayahuaska), Rapé e Sepá, que é uma defumação extraída de uma árvore. Além dessas plantas de poder, os Yawanawa utilizam a caiçuma (bebida fermentada de macaxeira ou milho), o Kampum ( o leite de uma rã da amazônia, utilizado como vacina) e o Rarë Muká; que, na tradição Yawanawa, é a mãe da floresta, ela é todas em uma só. Para se tornar Pajé no mundo Yawanawa, é preciso passar um ano na dieta do Rarë.
Esse rapé tem uma alquimia simples, porém bastante interessante: sua base é o tabaco bem picado e pilado, e a mistura é a cinza da casca de uma árvore amazônica, que os Yawanawa chamam TSUNU.Esse rapé possui um alcalóide ativado pela combustão da casca de Tsunu durante a sua confecção, por isso as propriedades medicinais são intensas.
Para os Yawanawa, o rapé, a mistura da cinza com tabaco, pode expulsar qualquer coisa ruim e malefício que possa estar atrapalhando a vida da pessoa, agindo no ponto em que a pessoa necessita.A casca de Tsunu, considerado pelo farma-cêutico brasileiro Gustavo Peckolt (1861-1923) uma das 10 plantas medicinais brasileiras mais importantes, é empregada na medicina popular para tratar malária, inapetência, má digestão, tontura, prisão de ventre e febres. Sua madeira serve para a construção e para a fabricação de cabos de ferramentas. No Rio de Janeiro antigo, também eram comuns, nos botequins, garrafas de cachaça com cascas de pau-pereira. Os boêmios da cidade atribuíam à bebida propriedades revigorantes e estimulantes do apetite sexual, já descritas pelos indígenas. Os primeiros registros científicos do uso do pau-pereira em tratamentos médicos surgiram em teses da Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro e na Revista Médica Fluminense. Entre outras citações, aparece a primeira prescrição, de banhos com águas obtidas a partir do cozimento das cascas de Tsunu, do médico brasileiro Joaquim José da Silva (1791-1857), à escrava de sua irmã, que sofria de febres intermitentes. O relato menciona que a escrava foi curada no segundo dia de tratamento, resultado que estimulou o médico a continuar prescrevendo tais banhos para pacientes com febres.
A forma tradicional de preparar rapé é utilizando fumo de rolo. Esse fumo é vendido enrolado em palhas de palmeira. O tabaco é fracionado com uma faca (migado) e depois torrado cuidadosamente em uma panela seca, sem deixar que se incendeie. Os outros temperos também costumam ser torrados, pois depois disso é necessário colocar o conteúdo em um pano fino, como o utilizado para fraldas de algodão, enrolado, e golpeado com um bastão para ir soltando o pó fino. Esse pó fino, sem resíduos, é o rapé pronto para ser inalado.
Os caboclos usam rapés para entrar na mata para se harmonizarem com os seres da floresta.
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All our rapé products are original, made by indigenous people from the many diferent tribes described below, and are sustainably produced by the tribes with the wisdom of their shamans.
What is Rapé
Rapé is a sacred shamanic medicine that has been used by healers of the Amazon basin for thousands of years and has become an essential part of their tribal culture and history (Stanfill et al. 2015). Rapé is a complex blend of pulverized plants, which usually contain a strong tobacco, Nicotiana rustica and sometimes also Nicotiana tabacum, as one of the main ingredients. Given the potency of the tobacco, Nicotiana rustica, which is 20 times stronger than Nicotiana tabacum, rapé can elicit mind alerting effects (Stanfill et al. 2010).
South American shamans use tobacco as a sacred, wholesome medicine and there exists a very close connection between tobacco use and shamanism that has little in common with our western way of tobacco use. Indigenous tribes use tobacco in ceremonies, to predict good weather, fishing, or harvest, and for spiritual (e.g. vision quest, trance etc) and curing purposes (Wilbert 1987), but rarely for smoking. The use of tobacco by indigenous tribes in South America, such as the Kaxinawá, Nu-nu, Yawanawá, and Katukina, is profoundly entrenched in their culture, and has been employed at least since the Mayan civilization for ritual, medicinal and recreational purposes (Zagorevski and Loughmiller-Newman, 2012).
In addition to tobacco, rapé preparations often contain pulverized and sieved leaves mixed with finely ground plant materials or alkaline ashes, e.g. camphor, cinnamon, tonka bean, clover, banana peel, and mint (Cardoso and Nascimento, 2008; Stanfill et al. 2015). The rapé ashes can, in addition, be made from psychoactive plants, e.g. Macambo (Theobroma bicolor); Txunú (Platycyamus regnellii), Copaíba (McKenna, 1993). There exist special rapé preparations that contain hallucinogens, such as Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Virola (Smet 1985; Schultes 1984), or even jurema (mimosa hostilis) and chacruna (psychotria viridis), made for ceremonial and curing purposes. However, some rapé ingredients will always remain a secret of the shamanic tribe that composed it.
Effects and Usage of Rapé
Using rapé has many different purposes for indigenous tribes, whereof female puberty rites, initiation rites, cashiri drinking festivals, social rites, and healing ceremonies (Wilbert 1987). Yet, every tribe has their own rapé routine: some apply rapé every day after breakfast and dinner, other tribes use it three times during the night (Wilbert 1987). Depending on the occasion, rapé can be mixed with other mind altering plants, like coca, jurema, or anadenanthera (Schultes 1967; Wilbert 1987).
A rape ritual typically involves a mutual administration by two persons. The blend is blown high up into the nostrils with a pipe made from bamboo or bone. The intense blow immediately focuses the mind, stops the chattering, and opens the entire freed mindspace for your intentions. Furthermore, rapé helps releasing emotional, physical, and spiritual illnesses and eases negativity and confusion, enabling a thorough grounding of your mind. Likewise, shamans use rapé to re-align with their energy channels and with their higher self, and to intensify their connection with the world and the universe. In addition, rapé paves the way for detoxifying the body and cleans out all excess mucus, toxins, and bacteria, thereby, assisting in fighting colds and snuffles. Moreover, rapé stimulates the mind with its nicotinic content that in turn releases a.o. epinephrine, acetylcholine, and dopamine (Wolk et al. 2005, Cryer 1976), supporting an increased focus, presence, and intuition. Interestingly, their are many rumours that Rapé could decalcify the pineal gland (1), which is involved in melatonin secretion, circadian time perception, and drug metabolism. Furthermore, calcification of the pineal gland has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, and fluoride exposure (Luke 1997; Luke 2001), which further stresses the importance of a healthy pineal gland. Yet, whether Rapé can really help the decalcification of the pineal gland, needs still to be scientifically proven.
Origin and History
The beginning of rapé is reflected in the origin of tobacco, which supposedly stems from the Americas. The first written tobacco snuff use ever reported, was documented from the Incas, who used rapé to cure sundry diseases and to “purge the head”(Gracilaso de la Vega 1723; Wilbert 1987). The Inca used only wild tobacco varieties and ground the roots of the plants. Already 5,000 years ago, Native Americans cultivated tobacco and were probably the first ones to smoke, chew, and inhale tobacco (GST Report; Elferink 1983). Until today, America remains famous for producing tobacco: in 2010, Brazil became the world’s largest tobacco exporter and the second largest tobacco producer (FAOSTAT). This is mirrored in the rapé use and production of Brazilians: indigenous people in Brazil are well-known for producing one of the best rapé blends worldwide. Furthermore, Brazilian indigenous tribes were the first ones known to use snuff (WHO). Whereas, snuff was only introduced to Europe in 1500; the Franciscan monk, Friar Ramón Pané, who travelled with Christopher Columbus in 1493, was the first European to found out that the Indians used snuff (Christen et al., 1982) and introduced this exquisite sacrament to Spain when he returned. This was the beginning of a long tobacco and snuff area in Europe.
Production of Rapé
In addition to tobacco, a blend of rapé is composed of plant root bark, seeds, and leaves, and of plant ashes.The tobacco is first cut into small pieces and then dried over a low fire. Then, dried plant materials and tobacco leaves are pulverized with a mortar and pestle from rosewood, which adds a sweet woody scent to the rapé blend (Curtis, 1935). After grinding, the blend is sieved and ground up again until a fine, smooth powder is obtained. The mixture is stored in bottles or plugged tubes, which are often made from bone to keep the produce as fresh as possible (Curtis, 1935).
For indigenous Americans, tobacco is medically used as a cure of certain diseases, sores, wounds, and as a defense against insects (Curtis 1935) and also as an analgesic and narcotic substance that eases fatigue, pain, hunger, and thirst (Elferink 1983).
Rapé enters deep into the nostrils, thereby cleaning out any residual mucus and exerting potent antibacterial effects (Pavia et al. 2000). If the body is too congested with toxins, vomiting can be a side effect that leads to a thorough cleansing. There are even special rapé blends (Machiguenga snuff) that are made to counteract influenza and other diseases (Russel & Rahman 2015). Furthermore, the tobacco that is contained in most rapé blends can potentiate the healing capacity of other plants, like Ayahuasca. Moreover, in its original sense, tobacco is even a hallucinogen. It contains two alkaloids, namely harman and norharman, which are closely related to harmine and harmaline (Janiger et al. 1973). These two beta-carbolines inhibit monoamine oxidase (Herraiz et al. 2005), leading to antidepressive and stimulatory effects (Farzin 2006).
As Rapé contains nicotine, its use increases the brain blood flow and affects the release of several stimulatory neurotransmitter, such as epinephrine, acetylcholine, and dopamine (Wolk et al. 2005, Cryer 1976; Domino et al. 2000), thereby heightening your focus, presence, and intuition and opening the body to higher communication and holistic thinking and understanding. As mentioned above, Rapé has the reputation of decalcifying the pineal gland, which is involved in melatonin secretion, circadian time perception, and the function of the immune system (Skwarlo-Sonta et al. 2003). Even though, this has not been confirmed by scientific studies, this is of great interest, given that degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson´s disease, and fluoride or mercury exposures can lead to calcification of the pineal gland (Luke 1997; Luke 2001). The calcification of the pineal gland can easily be tested by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that show the degree of calcium phosphate on the gland. Furthermore, even normal aging has been associated with pineal gland calcification and decreased melatonin production (Kunz et al. 1999), whereas children rarely show calcified pineal glands. Moreover, it is suggested that our polluted water, which is often filled with hormones and residues of pesticides, as well as food additives, excess sugar and sweeteners, can lead to calcification of the pineal gland. Pineal gland calcification has also been shown to be associated with decreased melatonin levels and a high risk for ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding), and with breast cancer (Kitkhuandee et al. 2014; Cohen et al. 1978). This risk for stroke was still higher when the patients were also affected by high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol/triglycerides (Kitkhuandee et al. 2014). The most prevalent movement disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), is also affected negatively by decreased amounts of melatonin (Polimeni et al. 2014). The main pathological event in PD involves the destruction of dopaminergic neurons, through oxidative damage. Melatonin can prevent this oxidative damage to occur (Antolín et al. 2002), making melatonin a possible preventive treatment in PD and other diseases where oxygen radical-mediated tissue damage occurs. In sum, melatonin enhances brain plasticity, interacts with the immune system, counteracts oxidative stress within the nervous system, and a key hormone in circadian time perception and other crucial biological functions. Tools, like rapé, that potentially a healthy pineal gland function, thereby counteracting its calcification and heightening its melatonin production, are of great interest.
Application: A Ceremony Between the Giver and the Receiver
Traditionally, rapé is administered with two different types of pipes, which are made from bamboo or bone. The first type of pipe is requiring the presence of another person, who will blow the snuff powerfully into each nostril of the partner who is going to receive and inhale rapé. For that reason it is generally referred to as the blow pipe and in Brazilian it is called the „Tepi“. The other type of pipe is a self-applicator and is named „Kuripe“. The connection between mouth and nose is easily established through the V-shape of the pipe.
Blowing the Tepi involves an intimate connection between the rapé giver and receiver. Both are closely connected by mouth, nose and by breath, and both need to open and allow the other spirit and intention to enter, permitting the healing to take place. Often the person blowing needs to be an experienced tribe member, as he sends his intention and spirit to the person inhaling, which affords a strong mind and clear focus. Hence, the essence of this blowing ritual does not depend on the strength of your blowing, but whether you can share yourself while doing it and thereby empowering the receiver. These ‘blowing rituals’ are of great importance in the shamanic tradition, which perceives the healing energy of breath (also known as ‘Soplada’ - which means blowing healing energy) as a major tool for healing (Fotiou 2012; Jauregui et al. 2011).
If you are an inexperienced rapé user, it is easier to use the Tepi, as both pipes afford a second blow right after the first one. This can be challenging for an unexperienced user, given that the first blow can be overwhelming. Still, if you are using the Kuripe, it is important to continue with the second blow as soon as possible to harmonize the energies of both nostrils.
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